澳门新葡亰娱乐在线

图片 1
启航2014考研拉脱维亚语备考,二零一一考研制胜意大利共和国语之全年复习陈设
图片 2
2018考研英语大纲解析发布,考研英语基础阶段

读书笔记,四六级最终10天冲锋计策

  很多考生感觉自己付出很多,但最后却没能成功。其实,他们的失败只因为没有早动手,导致最后很多考点都来不及学习。下面我们就一起探讨早动手的切入点及其基本方法。

作者:Jesús Huerta de Soto
来源:下载的PDF电子版

距2017年6月四六级考试

  早动手的切入点

Jesús Huerta de Soto Ballester (Madrid, 1956) is a Spanish economist
of the Austrian School. He is a professor in the Department of Applied
Economics at King Juan Carlos University of Madrid, Spain and a Senior
Fellow at the Ludwig von Mises Institute.
Huerta de Soto received a bachelor’s degree in economics in 1978 and a
PhD in economics in 1992, from Complutense University. His MBA in
actuarial science is from Stanford University, 1985. In 2000 he became
a full professor of Political Economy at Universidad Rey Juan Carlos
in Madrid.
Huerta de Soto was Editor of seven volumes of the Spanish language
version of the University of Chicago Press’s The Collected Works of
F.A. Hayek. In that capacity, he was responsible for bibliographies,
footnotes, introductions, and hiring translators. He is a member of
the editorial board of New Perspectives on Political Economy and on
the advisory editorial board of the Journal of Markets and Morality.
Huerta de Soto is a Senior Fellow of the Ludwig von Mises Institute
and is on the editorial board of its Quarterly Journal of Austrian
Economics. He was formerly a Trustee of the Madrid Institute for
Advanced Studies (IMDEA) in social sciences and was a vice-president
and director of the Mont Pelerin Society from 2000 to 2004.

还有最后10天!**

小伙伴们,天气很闷热;还在为高考结束的学弟妹们感到高兴;还有一个月就暑假了,正在高兴地买回家的票、准备暑期旅行、准备暑期实习…

S姐非常体谅你们此时此刻复杂的心情和思绪。然而!离四六级真的只有10天了好嘛!

别怕,S姐又来送《CET4/6之临阵磨枪秘籍》了。一天提高5分,10天就是50分。还来得及!

  我们给你的建议是:从历年真题切入。很多考生不明白,一模一样的原题不会出,为什么历年真题那么重要?那是因为虽然原题不会再现,但是真理里包含的考点的重复率却是非常高的。通过对历年真题的分析和统计,可以说,超过90%的考点都是在以前的真题中出现过的,所以早动手,从历年真题切入。

巴别塔经哲读书会3月份的要求阅读书目,本书形如奥地利经济学派的简介手册,让读者对学派有一个全面的了解,书中重点和新古典经济学派、社会主义进行了系统的差异性分析,列举了学派发展的历史阶段和关键人物,读的英文版,大量的专业性词汇也是边读边背。

首先屡一下考试安排:

▶时间

6月17日

四级-125分钟9:00-11:20

六级-130分钟15:00-17:25

▶时长

总时长130分钟

作文30分钟

听力30分钟

阅读40分钟

翻译30分钟

tip:尽快完成翻译,把多的时间留给阅读

▶分数

满分710分,合格425分

作文106.5分

听力248.5分

阅读248.5分

翻译106.5分

▶保底得分指南

酱紫你还有25分可以扣!

作文60分

听力150分

阅读150分

翻译60分

图片 1

图片 2


  早动手的具体方法

个人感觉奥地利学派和新古典经济学,犹如海洋法系和大陆法系的差别,但是这样的差别虽然只是表面上的看似较小,实质上确非常的巨大。基于这样差别的本源,是否有必要引出一套企业管理的理论,以及怎么样的一套理论,都是值得慢慢思考的问题,现在谈的比较多的阿米巴经营、互联网公司的扁平化管理架构、智力型服务公司的合伙人制等等,都是这个方向的探索。

听力

今年的听力要千万注意“近音陷阱”。举个栗子:

W: I ‘ve got to buy a new car.

M: Really?

Q: What does the woman mean?

选项:

A) She purchased a car recently.

B) She knew the car was in the lot.

C) She always forgets to clean her car.

D) She really needs a new car.

可以看出,B)项中的knew是对原文中new的近音干扰,C)项中的forget是对have
got
to的近音干扰。因此,在遇到这类题时,一定要仔细,不要一看到干扰项就立即作出选择,从而中了题设陷阱。

▶命题常见3大原则:

1. 顺序原则

听力出题的顺序和听到的内容顺序一致:都是从前往后顺序出现的。做题时应该根据顺序原则定位。

2. 同义替换

正确选项和对应的听力原文答案句存在同义替换现象,六级听力中尤其常见。

3. 转折处常设出题点

语音语调变化,如升降调表疑问、表转折等处常设考点。

相应地在做题时,应该注重抓听以下标志词:

最高级标志词

The most/ chief / primary / main / lead

唯一级标志词

only / unique / prefer / perfect

逻辑关系词

1)注意表示转折和对比的逻辑词:but,however, nevertheless, while, in
fact, whereas, unexpectedly, unfortunately, yet, except, on the other
hand, compared to, unlike, instead, in contrast to等

2)注意表示因果的逻辑词:as a result, since, due to, because of,
therefore, thus, so

3)注意表示否定的逻辑词:not, no, rarely, seldom, never

4)表让步的逻辑词:despite, in spite of, although, though

转折、因果、否定部分的内容一般是说话人强调的内容

总结项标志词

all in all / in brief / to conclude / at last / in summary / in short

以下5大原则帮你敲定正确答案

第一招:相近原则

当选项中有两项表达意思相近时,那么正确答案必在这两项之中!这时只需稍微听一听对话,即可知答案,如果出现了双重相关,便可直接确认正确选项,只需听完对话加之认证一下即可!

典型真题:2016年6月六级听力第10题

A) They will feel less pressure to raise employees’ wages.

B) They will feel free to choose the most suitable employees.

C) They will feel inclined to expand their business operations.

D) They will feel more confident in competing with their rivals.

分析:A、B两项均含有they will
feel和employees,相比其他两项更具相关性,正确答案应该在A和B选项中。

第二招:相反原则

当选项中有两项表达意思相反时,那么正确答案必在这两项之中!

典型真题:2016年6月四级听力第11题

A) It poses a challenge to seniors.

B) It saves both time and money.

C) It is childish and unprofessional.

D) It is cool and convenient.

分析:C、D选项结构一样,表达意义相反。正确答案应该在C和D选项中。

第三招:视听一致原则(划重点!)

被读到单词(个数+次数)最多的选项是正确答案

还以上面这道4级真题为例,听力原文如下:

W: He said he’d never text message. He thinks it’s very childish and
unprofessional to text message.

M: Yeah, I can see what he means. It’s considered pretty informal to
text message someone.

刚才我们通过相近相反原则已经确定答案在C和D中,听到childish and
unprofessional可以直接选出。

C) It is childish and unprofessional.

D) It is cool and convenient.

提醒:如果有2个选项均有多个单词被读到,那么标记被读到的单词次数。哪个选项单词被读到的次数最多,哪个就是正确选项!

第四招:概括、抽象保留原则

当选项中出现比较概括、抽象的句子时,这时我们就要把表述事实的、具体的句子划掉,而去选择表概、抽象、比较性的句子!此原则可衍生出一个包含取大的原则,在作题时应用也是十分的广泛,一般当两个选项的意思接近时,表述比较全面的一般为正确选项!

典型例题:

A)The visiting economist has given several lectures.

B)The guest lecturer’s opinion is different from Dr. Johnson’s.

C)Dr. Johnson and the guest speaker were schoolmates.

D)Dr. Johnson invited the economist to visit their college.

分析:A、C、D均为表述事实的句子,只有B项为对比、比较的句子,较之A、C、D项更为抽象的表述了一件事情,所以B项为正确选项!

第五招:态度和虚拟保留原则

正确答案,表虚拟的选项更容易是正确答案!

其他tips:

▶新闻越前面越有可能是答案;

▶对话女生说的一般会是答案;

▶日期、价格、数字、时间,记得做笔记。

2016年12月大学英语四级听力真题(含材料和文本):

2016年12月大学英语六级听力真题(含材料和文本):

不妨利用最后的10天,进行以下步骤的真题训练:

预读选项— 完整听题— 对答案— 跟读模仿— 裸听— 再次跟读和裸听

关于高频词汇,文末有200个汇总,大家可以拉下去看哦。


  认真统计历年考研[微博]英语的真题后,会发现,真题中反复考核的重点包括以下三类词汇:1.实义动词;2.抽象名词;3.形容词与副词。所以,有针对性地学习历年真题中这三类词汇能对备考效率和考试分数直接产生巨大的帮助。让我们先拿真题做个比较。

time preference
是奥地利学派提出来的,非常有意思的概念,企业管理有时候就是协调团队的
time
preference,让人的相对随机行为转变为统一协调的行为,从而产生更明显的波峰和波谷,完成个人所难以达到的目标,管理者需要具备调整相关人员
time preference 的能力。

阅读

很多小伙伴说,没有办法理解原文的某些句子。他们倾向于一遍一遍重复去读。非但没有读懂,反而浪费了时间。

不用慌,有句子读不懂是很正常的!关键就在于,通常阅读理解的句子构成包含以下几种逻辑。将逻辑梳理清楚,则可以进行选项排除:

因果关系:

显性的because,so无需多说,隐性因果关系包括:

A 导致(因-果):cause、reason、lead to、give rise to、result
in、render、make、let、ask、push、stimulate、fuel、produce

如:The increased presures of expanding population have led to the
removal of woody plants so that many cities and tow are surrounded by
large areas completely lacking in trees.

在这段话中,有lead to表示了导致的意思,即结果,而so
that更进一步表示了后面的结果,所以可以充分判定这段话有因果关系的逻辑。

B 由…而来(果-因):result from、derive from、originate from、initiate
from、stem from、be attributable to

如:“The extreme serioue of desertification results from the vast areas
of land and tremendous numbers of people affected,as well as from
thegreat difficulty of reversing or even slowing the proce.”

在这段话中,根据result
from可以推断出有因果关系,那如果是解释句子题时,选项中有因果关系就可以优先考虑。

C 反映,体现(果-因):reflect、present、demonstrate、suggest、imply

D 考虑到:given、considering、in view of、thanks to、according to

He succeeded thanks to(in view of) his effort.

E 依赖于:rely on、depend on、resort to

He resorted to books when he had problems.

F 条件关系:when、once、as soon as、As long as

As soon as he got the money, he would leave the country at once.

G 分词短语,不定式做状语:Failing in the final exam, she cried.

转折关系:

A 对比:while、whereas、on the other hand

在解释句子题、插入句子题中,一旦出现对比关系,学生在掌握的基础上就能非常快速的判定句间和句内的关系。While、whereas
前后连接的是平行结构,on the other hand前必定有on one
hand,可以用来把握句间关系。

B 转折:but、although、nevertheless、however

比较关系:

A 同级比较the same to

B 比较级:more than、-er than

C
变化:
change、alter、vary、modify、revise、increase、decrease、enhance、diminish、develop、progress、advance、improve、retreat、degenerate、continue、remain

D
差异:
different、distinguish、separate、same、similar、comparable、compare
to

E 超越:surpass、exceed、excel、over

F 最高级,本身有最高级含义:maximum、minimum、peak、outstanding

G 本身程度比较深:amazing、surprising、astonishing、prohibitively

H 否定+比较=最高级No one is more outstanding than him.

从这句话中可以看出,否定加比较表示的是一种最高级关系。

否定关系:

显性否定:no、not、never、nor、none neither

隐形否定:fail to、refuse、remove、mi、reject、aence of、lack of

否定前缀:a-、ab-、dis-、il-、im-、in-、non-、un-否定前缀是词汇题中经常出的一个考点,把握否定前缀可以帮助考生把握一些生词,依靠否定前缀对选项进行一个排除。

双重否定:not fail to、not illegal、not uncommon、not
unavailable双重否定是英文中经常运用的表达方式,由于在平时中文对话中用的很少,随意对双重否定的把握就显得特别的重要。

其他tips:

▶先看提干,后看文章,带着问题去勾画关键词;

▶找到文章主题,实在看不懂文章,就通过主题来选;

▶寻找矛盾选项,对立面可以帮助你找准选项。


  1.bewildering令人眼花缭乱的

在社会结构中,企业家是负责盈利的(以盈利为目标导向),消费者是负责购买的(以购买为目标导向),企业家和消费者在进行多伦博弈之后,逐渐产生了一种共赢方案,一个独立的第三方暴力垄断机构:政府。从企业家和消费者对立的角度而言,其实可以产生非常多的政治制度解决方案,比如企业家投票组成的参院和消费者投票产生的众院等等,在非联邦制下面是否可以考虑也是蛮有意思的脑洞。

翻译

考试形式为段落汉译英,翻译内容涉及中国的历史、文化、经济、社会发展等题材,文章长度为180-200个汉字。

▶能短则短,越短越不容易出错。多用连接词。

▶翻译重点考察语言的应用能力,所以在考试时,应尽量避免使用一些过于简单的词汇,而应选择一些更高级的词汇。比如”have
to”可以换成”be obliged to”,”help to”可以换成”contribute
to”。但是,不出错是还是最优先的。

▶试着用几个词去解释自己突然想不起的单词,或者找同义词,近义词来替换。

如“匿名”对应的单词是”anonymity”,可以用”a unknown
name”来代替。”美化”对应的单词“beautify”,可以用“make sth more
beautiful”来代替。

常见的一些搭配:

动词和名词的搭配:raise awareness, adopt measures, take steps, adopt
approaches

动词词组的搭配:give a green light to, deepen one’s understanding of,
pave the way for

形容词和名词的搭配:compelling reason, ample evidence, harsh punishment

名词词组搭配:environmental awareness, coverage of crime, health effect

介宾短语的搭配:in the media, on the internet, on television, in
newspapers

表示某个特定意思的习惯搭配:close the rich/poor gap, discriminate
between right and wrong,have a higher chance of developing cancer, fail
to achieve work-life balance

避免中式英文的直接翻译:

improve the problem →solve the problem or improve the situation

contact with violence→exposure to violence

advertisements about children→advertisements aimed at children.

  2.cognitive认知的

上次参加鲁克阿兰德读书会活动的时候提到的一个问题,关于垄断和创新之间是否存在矛盾性,可以进一步延展到奥地利学派设想的经济环境下讨论:自由市场环境下(不存在任何机构性强迫),企业的垄断行为是否会减少创新行为的发生?这样的环境下专利和垄断的关系是怎么样的?企业家精神和创新的关系之间是否有必然的关联?

另外,S搜集了网上的热点预测

汉语热

汉语热指近年来越来越多的外国人开始学习汉语的现象。在很多国家,学汉语的人数在迅速增长。据统计,全世界已有109个国家、3000多所高等学校开设了汉语课程。一项调查显示,他们学习汉语的主要目的是去中国旅游、从事贸易活动、了解中国和中国文化。汉语热背后的原因是中国经济的飞速发展,它使中国的国际地位和影响力得到了提升。全球“汉语热”传达了世界各国人民渴望了解中国文化的信息。

Chinese language craze refers to the phenomenon that a growing number of
foreigners start to learn Chinese. The number of Chinese learners
increases rapidly in many countries. According to statistics, more than
3000 institutions of higher education in 109 countries are offering
courses on Chinese language. A survey indicates that they learn Chinese
for the main purpose of travelling in China, engaging in trade
activities and knowing China and the Chinese culture. The underlying
reasons for this craze lie in the rapid development of China’s economy,
which enhances the international status and the influence of China. This
global Chinese language craze conveys a message that people around the
world are eager to know the Chinese culture.

银发产业:

“银发产业”是一个新名词,是指以老年人为目标客户的产业。其范围十分广泛,包括健康服务、家政服务、旅游娱乐和教育等各个领域。随着中国进入老龄化社会,银发产业蓬勃发展。老年人出游人数逐年增长。越来越多的老年人选择在退休后进入老年大学学习。相关统计数据表明,全国60岁以上的老人超过了总人口的11%。目前,“银发产业”市场需求达到8000亿元左右,产业还有很大的发展空间。

Silver industry is a new term referring to the industry targeted at
senior citizens. It covers a wide range of fields, including health
service, home service, tourism and entertainment, education and so on.
With China stepping into the aging society, the silver industry gets
prosperous. More and more elderly people go travelling every year and
choose to study in the universities for senior citizens after they
retire. Related statistics show that the number of senior citizens aged
more than 60 accounts for 11-odd percent of the population in China. At
present, the market demand of the silver industry stands at about 800
billion RMB, giving great room for the industry to develop.

交通拥堵:

交通拥堵是世界各国普遍面临的问题。近年来,我国城市化水平空前加快,大中城市交通拥堵问题尤其突出,交通阻塞已由局部向大范围蔓延。这不仅影响了城市生活的效率和质量,而且带来了环境污染、能源紧张等一系列经济社会问题,严重制约了城市的发展。要想解决这一问题,良好的公共交通是必不可少的。实行低票价政策,是实现公交优先的基本保证。从长远来看,则要大力发展轨道交通(rail
transportation),降低路面拥堵。

Traffic jam has been a problem shared by all countries around the
world.In recent years,the urbanization of China reaches an unprecedented
level,which leads to especially prominent traffic jam in large and
medium-sized cities.The problem of traffic jam has extended from part to
a wide range.Traffic jam not only affects the efficiency and quality of
uiban life,but also causes a series of economic and social problems like
environmental pollution and energy deficiency,which greatly restricts
the development of cities.To solve the problem,well-organized public
transportation is indispensable.Low ticket price is the basic guarantee
of priority of public transportation.In the long term,we must vigorously
develop rail transportation to lessen traffic jam.

选秀节目:

选秀(draft),指选拔在某方面表现优秀的人。中国自古就有,古代选秀一般是宫廷选秀。从2004年《超级女声》开始,大众选秀节目开始进入我们的视线,这类几乎“零门槛(zero
of
threshold)”的选秀活动让所有人都有机会成为明星。之后的《好男儿》、《快乐男声》、《我型我秀》还有《中国好声音》等等选秀活动一一登场,几乎一刻都没有让中国的电视观众闲着。通过这些选秀活动,很多有才能的
“平民百姓”实现了自己的梦想,走上了星光大道(avenue of stars)。

A draft refers to a procedure during which people who perform well in a
certain aspect are picked out.In ancient China,there were also drafts
which generally referred to court drafts.From the year 2004 when Super
Girl was on,talent show programs began to come into our sight.Such kind
of nearly“zero threshold”talent show offers everyone an opportunity to
become popular.Later,there came My Hero,Super Boy,My Show and The Voice
of China.As these talent show programs appeared one by one,Chinese TV
audience hardly had time to rest.Through these talent show programs,many
talented “ordinary people”realized their dreams and stepped on the
avenue of stars.

出国留学热:

早在100年前,出国留学就被视为一种强国之策。直至今日,越来越多的学生热衷于出国留学。但当下风行的留学热,掺杂着一定的盲目性和随意性,从而导致很多问题的发生,如许多留学生花掉家中积蓄,搭上个人青春,到头来却是半途而废,有的甚至成为恶习缠身的“问题学生。”最好不要盲目地跟随当前的这股出国留学热,选择适合自己的发展方向才是最重要的,因为“三百六十行,行行出状元”。

As early as 100 years ago,studying abroad was seen as a strategy to
strengthen the national power.Now,more and more students crave for
studying abroad.Students nowadays are a bit aimless and casual when
craving for studying abroad, which leads to many problems like
exhausting all the savings of their family,wasting their youths but
ending up by giving up halfway and even becoming trouble-making
students”with many bad habits.It’s better not follow the current craze
of studying abroad blindly and it’s most important to choose the
direction fit for oneself,for“one can perform well in any field”.


  3.constrained受限的,有限的

摘录:

作文

▶来自人民日报的108个进阶版黄金句式

图片 3

图片 4

图片 5

图片 6

图片 7

图片 8

图片 9

图片 10

图片 11

如果还有英文语法、常用语、和热点新闻方面的疑问,在阅读翻译作文上有任何困惑,快去抱住

Pop
On外教的腿啦。尤其是听力,和外教聊天,有助于快速培养考前语感,适应歪果仁的吐字发音哦


  4.dictate支配

图片 12

200个高频词汇

图片 13

图片 14

图片 15

图片 16

图片 17

图片 18

图片 19

图片 20

图片 21

最后,小伙伴们,真题卷买了吧,现在还藏着舍不得做,难道要see you next
year嘛~

事在人为,S姐只能帮到这里啦。

祝福你们▼▼**

图片 22

比心~

六月新版Pop On即将上线

期待惊喜

👇

图片 23

  5.dimension维度,规模

图片 24

  6.entail包括

图片 25

  7.enterprise事业

Austrians are particularly critical of the narrow concept of economics
which originated with Robbins and his well-known definition of the
subject. In his own words, “economics is the science which studies human
behavior as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have
alternative uses” (Robbins 1932, 16). Robbins’s conception implicitly
presupposes a given knowledge of ends and means and reduces the economic
problem to a technical problem of mere allocation, maximization or
optimization, subject to certain restrictions which are also assumed
known. In other words, Robbins’s concept of economics reflects the
essence of the neoclassical paradigm and can be considered completely
foreign to the methodology of the  Austrian school as it is understood
today. Indeed, Robbins portrays man as an automaton, a simple caricature
of a human being, who may only react passively to events. In contrast
with this view, Mises, Kirzner and the rest of the  Austrian school
maintain that man does not so much allocate given means to given ends,
as constantly seek new ends and means, while learning from the past and
using his imagination to discover and create the future (via action).
 Thus, for  Austrians, economics forms part of a much broader and more
general science, a general theory of human action (and not of human
decision or choice).  According to Hayek, if for this general science of
human action “a name is needed, the term  praxeological sciences now
clearly defined and extensively used by Ludwig von Mises, would appear
to be most appropriate” (Hayek 1952a, 209).

  8.eradicate消除

Economics is not about things and tangible material objects; it is about
men, their meanings and actions. Goods, commodities, and wealth and all
the other notions of conduct are not elements of nature; they are
elements of human meaning and conduct. He who wants to deal with them
must not look at the external world; he must search for them in the
meaning of acting men. (Mises 1996, 92)

  9.initiate开始,发动

For the above reasons, members of the  Austrian school find that many of
the theories and conclusions that neoclassicals form in their analysis
of consumption and production make no sense in terms of economics. One
example is the “law of equality of price-weighted marginal utilities”,
which rests on very shaky theoretical foundations. In fact this law
presupposes that the actor is able to simultaneously assess the utility
of all goods at their disposal, and it overlooks the fact that every
action is sequential and creative, and that goods are not assessed at
the same time by equalizing their supposed marginal utilities, but
rather one after the other, within the context of different stages and
actions, for each of which the corresponding marginal utility may be not
only different but incomparable (Mayer 1994, 81–3)

  10.prerequisite先决条件

The great merit of the  Austrians is to have demonstrated that it is
perfectly possible to develop the entire corpus of economic theory in a
logical manner, while introducing the concepts of time and creativity
 (praxeology); that is, without any need of functions nor assumptions of
constancy which do not fit in with the creative nature of human beings,
who are the only true protagonists of social processes, the object of
research in economics.

  11.stem阻止

et us bear in mind that it fully agrees with the original etymological
meaning of the word “enterprise” (empresa in Spanish). Indeed both the
Spanish word  empresa and the French and English word  entrepreneur
derive etymologically from the Latin verb  in prehendo-endi-ensum, which
means “to discover, to see, to perceive, to realize, to capture”; and
the Latin term  in prehensa clearly implies action and means “to take,
to seize”. In short,  empresa is synonymous with action

  12.unfold打开,阐明

We  could also cite, following Polanyi, the example of a person who is
learning to ride a bicycle and attempts to maintain their balance by
moving the handlebars to the side toward which they begin to fall,
creating in this way a centrifugal force which tends to keep the bicycle
upright; yet almost no cyclist is aware of or familiar with the physical
principles behind this ability. On the contrary, what the cyclist
actually uses is a “sense of balance”, which in some way informs them
how to behave at each moment to keep from falling. Polanyi goes so far
as to assert that tacit knowledge is in fact the dominant principle of
all knowledge (Polanyi 1959, 24–5). Even the most highly formalized and
scientific knowledge invariably follows from an intuition or an act of
creation, which are simply manifestations of tacit knowledge. Moreover
the new knowledge we can acquire through formulas, books, charts, maps
and so on is important mainly because it helps us to reorganize our
entire framework of practical, entrepreneurial information from
different and increasingly rich and valuable perspectives, which in turn
opens up new possibilities for the exercise of creative intuition.
 Therefore the impossibility of articulating practical knowledge
manifests itself not only “statically”, in the sense that any apparently
articulated statement contains information only insofar as it is
interpreted through a combination of prior, inarticulable beliefs and
knowledge, but also “dynamically”, since the mental process used in any
attempt at formalized articulation is itself essentially tacit,
inarticulable knowledge.

  如果孤立的去记这些单词,会发现根本记不住,转眼就忘了。那么不妨换一种方式来学习词汇,叫作“读透真题记搭配”。还是拿真题中的词举例:

Another type of knowledge that cannot be articulated and that plays an
essential role in the functioning of society is composed of the set of
habits, traditions, institutions, and juridical and moral rules that
comprise the law that make society possible, and that human beings learn
to follow, though we cannot articulate in detail nor theorize about the
precise functions that these rules and institutions perform in the
various situations and social processes in which they are involved.

  1.各种令人眼花缭乱的食物=the bewildering variety of
foods,其中variety表示“种类,多样性”。

The exercise of entrepreneurship does not require any means.  That is to
say, entrepreneurship does not entail any costs and is therefore
fundamentally creative.  This creative aspect of entrepreneurship is
embodied in its production of a type of profit which, in a sense, arises
out of nothing, and which we shall therefore refer to as pure
entrepreneurial profit.  To  derive entrepreneurial profit one needs no
prior means, but only to exercise entrepreneurship well. It is
particularly important to emphasize that any act of entrepreneurship
brings about three extraordinarily significant effects. First,
entrepreneurship creates new information. Second, this information is
transmitted throughout the market.  Third, the entrepreneurial act
teaches each of the economic agents involved to tune their behavior to
the needs of the others.  These consequences of entrepreneurship, as the
authors of the  Austrian school have analytically formulated them, are
so important that they are worth studying closely one by one.

  2.从认知的角度理解=in cognitive terms,其中in
terms表示“从……角度理解”。

Each entrepreneurial act entails the  ex nihilo creation of new
information or knowledge.  This creation takes place in the mind of the
person who initially exercises entrepreneurship. Indeed when a person we
shall call “C” realizes that a profit opportunity exists, new
information is created in his mind. Furthermore once “C” takes action
and contacts, for instance, “A” and “B”, and buys cheaply from “B” a
resource that “B” has too much of and then sells it at a higher price to
“A”, who needs it urgently, new information is also created in the minds
of “A” and “B”. “A” realizes that the resource she lacked and needed so
desperately to accomplish her end is available elsewhere in the market
in greater quantities than she had thought, and that therefore she can
now readily undertake the action she had not initiated before due to the
absence of this resource. For his part, “B” realizes that the resource
he so abundantly possesses yet did not value is keenly desired by other
people, and that therefore he should save and protect it, since he can
sell it at a good price.

  3.有限的起源=constrained beginnings

Thus the key importance of not disregarding anyone’s entrepreneurship.
Even the humblest people, those of the lowest social status or most
lacking in formal knowledge, will exclusively possess at least small
bits or pieces of knowledge and information which can be of decisive
value in the course of social events. From this standpoint, it is
obvious that our concept of entrepreneurship is of an essentially
humanistic nature, a concept which makes economics, as it is understood
and advanced by members of the  Austrian school, the quintessential
humanistic science.

  4.支配语法=dictate a grammar

The reason our political system was superior to those of all other
countries was that the political systems of other countries had been
created by introducing laws and institutions according to the personal
judgment of particular individuals, like Minos in Crete and Lycurgus in
Sparta . . . In contrast, our Roman republic is not the personal
creation of one man, but of many. It has not been founded during the
lifetime of any specific individual, but over a number of centuries and
generations.  For there has never been in the world a man intelligent
enough to foresee everything, and even if we could concentrate all
brainpower into the head of one man, it would be impossible for him to
take everything into account at the same time, without having
accumulated the experience which practice provides over the course of a
long period in history.

  5.涵盖规模=entail the dimensions

Luis Saravia de la Calle, who was the first to shed light on the true
relationship between prices and costs in the market. Saravia de la Calle
asserted that in any case, costs tend to follow prices and not vice
versa.  Thus he was before his time in exposing the errors of the
objective theory of value, which the theorists of the English classical
school would later develop, and which would provide the foundation for
the exploitation theory of Karl Marx and his socialist successors. In
his work,  Instrucción de mercaderes (Instruction to Merchants),
published in Spanish in Medina del Campo around the year 1544, Saravia
de la Calle writes: Those who gauge the just price of an article by the
labor, costs, and risks borne by the person who deals in or produces the
merchandise are seriously mistaken; for the just price springs from the
abundance or lack of goods, merchants, and money, and not from costs,
labor, and risks. (Saravia de la Calle 1949, 53)

  6.科学事业=scientific enterprise

In this book Mariana plunges into a true  Austrian-style analysis
concerning the impossibility, due to a lack of information, that a
government could organize civil society based on coercive commands.
Indeed it is impossible for the state to obtain the information it needs
to give a coordinating quality to its commands, and therefore its
intervention tends to cause disorder and chaos. Thus, with reference to
government, Mariana states: “It is a grave mistake for the blind to wish
to lead the sighted.” He adds that the authorities “do not know the
people, nor the events, at least in terms of all of their circumstances,
upon which success depends. Inevitably they will commit many serious
errors, and people will be troubled as a result and will scorn such a
blind government.” Mariana concludes that “power and command are mad”
and when “there are too many laws, as they cannot all be followed, or
even known, respect is lost for all of them”

  7.阻止和消除饥饿=stem and eradicate hunger

In short, the Scholastics of the Spanish Golden  Age were able to
articulate what would later become the key theoretical principles of the
 Austrian school of economics, specifically: first, the subjective
theory of value (Diego de Covarrubias y Leyva); second, the correct
relationship between prices and costs (Luis Saravia de la Calle); third,
the dynamic nature of the market and the impossibility of realizing the
equilibrium model (Juan de Lugo and Juan de Salas); fourth, the dynamic
concept of competition understood as a process of rivalry between
sellers (Castillo de Bovadilla and Luis de Molina); fifth, the principle
of time preference (rediscovered by Martín de  Azpilcueta); sixth, the
profoundly distorting effect inflation exerts on the real economy (Juan
de Mariana, Diego de Covarrubias and Martín de  Azpilcueta); seventh,
the critical analysis of fractional-reserve banking (Luis Saravia de la
Calla and Martín de  Azpilcueta); eighth, the recognition that bank
deposits form part of the money supply (Luis de Molina and Juan de
Lugo); ninth, the impossibility of organizing society via coercive
commands, since the information necessary to give such commands a
coordinating quality is lacking (Juan de Mariana); and tenth, the
libertarian tradition that all unjustified intervention in the market
constitutes a violation of natural law (Juan de Mariana).

  8.某事由某人做出=something is initiated by somebody

To  understand the influence that the Spanish Scholastics exerted on the
subsequent development of the  Austrian school of economics, we must
especially remember that in the sixteenth century the Emperor and King
of Spain, Charles  V,  sent his brother, Ferdinand I, to be King of
 Austria. Etymologically, “Austria” means “eastern part of the empire”,
an empire which at that time encompassed practically all of continental
Europe, with the only notable exception of France, which remained
isolated and surrounded by Spanish forces.  Therefore it is easy to
understand how the Spanish Scholastics came to intellectually influence
the  Austrian school, a situation which was not a mere coincidence or
caprice of history, but which arose from the intimate historical,
political and cultural relations which developed between Spain and
 Austria beginning in the sixteenth century (Bérenguer 1993, 133–335).
 These relations would be maintained for several centuries, and Italy
also played a vital role, as a cultural bridge across which the
intellectual exchange between the far points of the empire (Spain and
 Austria) flowed.  Thus there are strong arguments behind the thesis
that, at least early on, the  Austrian school embodied a Spanish
tradition.

  9.成功的学术生涯的先决条件=a prerequisite for a successful academic
career

Very early on, the young Menger realized that the classical theory of
price determination, as  Adam Smith and his  Anglo-Saxon followers had
formulated it, left much to be desired. Menger’s  personal observations
of the functioning of the stock market (during one period he was a stock
market correspondent for the  Wiener Zeitung), along with his own
research, led him to write at 31 years of age, in, according to Hayek,
“a state of morbid excitement” (Hayek 1992, 69), the book which would
officially give birth to the  Austrian school of economics. In this book
the author strove to establish the new foundations upon which he
believed it was necessary to rebuild all economic science. These
principles essentially included the development of an economic science
which would always rest on “man”, viewed as a creative actor and the
protagonist of all social processes and events (subjectivism), as well
as, for the first time in the history of economic thought, the
formulation, based on subjectivism, of an entire formal theory on the
spontaneous emergence and evolution of all social (economic, legal and
linguistic) institutions, understood as established behavior patterns.
 All of these ideas are incorporated in the book, Principles of
Economics, which Menger published in 1871, and which would become one of
the most influential works in the history of economic thought.

  10.诠释语言的基本结构=unfold the fundamental structure of a language

He asserts that economic scientists should always adopt the subjective
perspective of the acting human being, and that this perspective should
exert a decisive influence on the way in which all economic theories are
formulated. Hayek, in reference to this new subjectivist conception
Menger proposes, even writes: “It is probably no exaggeration to say
that every important advance in economic theory during the last hundred
years was a further step in the consistent application of
subjectivism.”

  按照搭配的方式来学习这些考点词汇,你不仅加深了这些考点词汇的记忆效果,更重要的是你也掌握了这些考点词汇的用法,在写作中更能体现地道的英文表达。

Let us suppose that Robinson Crusoe has just arrived on his island and
spends his time picking berries from bushes by hand, his only means of
subsistence. Each day he devotes all of his efforts to gathering
berries, and he picks enough to survive and can even eat a few extra
daily.  After several weeks on this diet Robinson Crusoe makes the
entrepreneurial discovery that with a wooden stick several meters long,
he could reach higher and further, strike the bushes with force and
gather many more berries in far less time.  The only problem is that he
estimates it could take him five whole days to find a suitable tree from
which to take the stick and then prepare it by removing its branches,
leaves and imperfections. During this time he would be compelled to
interrupt his berry picking. If he wishes to act on his idea and produce
the stick, he will have to somewhat reduce his consumption of berries
for a number of days and store the remainder in a basket until he has
enough to survive for five days, the predicted duration of the wooden
stick’s production process.  After planning his action Robinson Crusoe
decides to undertake it, and therefore he must first save a portion of
the berries he picks by hand each day, thus reducing his consumption by
that amount.  This clearly represents an inevitable sacrifice, which he
nevertheless deems well worth his effort in relation to the goal he
longs to achieve. So he decides to reduce his consumption (in other
words, to save) for ten days, let us say, while storing his leftover
berries in a basket until he has accumulated an amount that he estimates
will be sufficient to sustain him while he produces the stick.

  好习惯是攀登胜利巅峰的阶梯,好习惯是开启成功之门的要是!好习惯不应该在脑海中“雪藏”,而是要执着践行。还在等什么,赶快行动起来吧!从今天起,让我们一起“读透真题记搭配”,让背单词变得更简单更轻松。

It is clear that, just as the difference between the “rich” Robinson
Crusoe with the stick and the “poor” Robinson Crusoe without it lay in
the capital good the former had obtained through prior saving, the
essential difference between rich societies and poor societies does not
stem from any greater effort that the former devote to work, nor even
from any greater technological knowledge that the former hold. Instead
it arises mainly from the fact that rich nations possess a more
extensive network of capital goods wisely invested from an
entrepreneurial standpoint.  These goods consist of machines, tools,
computers, software, buildings, semi-manufactured goods and so on, and
they exist due to prior saving by the nation’s citizens.

  来源:文都教育

In a modern economy present and future behaviors are reconciled through
entrepreneurial activity in the market where present goods are exchanged
for future goods and where the interest rate, the market price of one
type of good in terms of the other, is established.  Thus the more
plentiful the savings, that is, the larger the quantity of present goods
sold or supplied, other things being equal, the lower their price in
terms of future goods; and consequently, the lower the market rate of
interest.  This indicates to entrepreneurs that more present goods are
available to enable them to increase the length and complexity of the
stages in their production processes, thereby making these stages more
productive. In contrast, the fewer the savings, that is, other things
being equal, the less willing economic agents are to give up immediate
consumption of present goods, the higher the market rate of interest.
Hence a high market rate of interest shows that savings are relatively
scarce, an unmistakable sign that entrepreneurs must heed in order to
avoid unduly lengthening the different stages in the production process
and generating, as a result, discoordination or maladjustments which
pose grave danger to the healthy, harmonious and sustained development
of society. In short, the interest rate conveys to entrepreneurs which
new productive stages or investment projects they can and should embark
on and which they should not, in order to keep coordinated, as far as
humanly possible, the behavior of savers, consumers and investors, and
to prevent the different productive stages from remaining  unnecessarily
 short or becoming too long.

Between 1920 and 1934 Mises organized, directed and held a famous
economics seminar (Privatseminar) in his official office at the  Vienna
Chamber of Commerce, where he was chief of the finance department and
general secretary, and where his involvement gave Mises a strong
influence over the economic policy of his country.  This seminar, which
was held on Friday evenings, was attended not only by students who were
preparing their doctoral theses under Mises’s guidance, but also, via
invitation, by highly prestigious economists from all over the world.
 The seminar meetings were attended regularly by Friedrich  A. Hayek,
Fritz Machlup, Gottfried von Haberler, Oskar Morgenstern, Paul L.M.
Rosenstein-Rodan, Felix Kaufmann, Alfred Schutz, Richard von Strigl,
Karl Menger (the mathematician son of Carl Menger, founder of the
 Austrian school) and Erich  Voegelin, among the German-speaking
participants. From the UK and the USA, Lionel Robbins, Hugh Gaitskell,
Ragnar Nurske and  Albert G. Hart attended, among others. Later, in the
USA, Mises again offered his seminar at New  York University, where it
was held on  Thursday evenings from the autumn of 1948 to the spring of

  1.  Among the many participants during this second period, the then
    future professors Murray N. Rothbard and Israel M. Kirzner stand out.

Hayek always wished to avoid involvement in politics. Furthermore he
considered the role of the intellectual, who must make scientific truth
their chief goal in life, to be incompatible with the role of the
politician, who is always obliged to yield to the dictates of public
opinion to secure votes (Hayek 1991, 45). Hence Hayek believed that in
the long term, efforts directed toward convincing intellectuals (thus
his great success in founding the classical liberal Mont Pèlerin
Society) or influencing public opinion would be much more productive.
(Hayek dissuaded  Anthony Fisher from entering politics and convinced
him that it would be much more useful to create the Institute of
Economic  Affairs, and later the  Atlas Research Foundation, to spread
classical liberal ideas throughout the world.) So without the strategic
initiatives that Hayek took, it would have been impossible to conceive
of the change in public opinion and in the intellectual sphere which led
to the fall of the Berlin  Wall and to the free market/conservative
revolution that took place in the USA under Ronald Reagan and in the UK
under Margaret  Thatcher, a revolution which has exerted, and continues
to exert, such a powerful influence on a worldwide scale.

we should comment on the development of the  Austrian theory of
competition and monopoly, which calls for the abandonment and
reconstruction of the clumsy static theory of markets that is advanced
in textbooks, and its replacement with a theory of competition,
understood as a dynamic, purely entrepreneurial process of rivalry. Such
a theory renders irrelevant or inexistent the problems of monopoly,
understood in the traditional sense, and focuses on institutional
restrictions on the free exercise of entrepreneurship in any sphere of
the market. Furthermore an important economic policy corollary of the
 Austrian analysis of competition and monopoly is the reconsideration of
all anti-trust policy and legislation, which from the  Austrian
perspective becomes largely detrimental and superfluous (Kirzner
1998–99, 67–77; Armentano 1972).

图片 26

图片 27

图片 28

图片 29

图片 30

相关文章

No Comments, Be The First!
近期评论
    功能
    网站地图xml地图